The Smart Battery Cell: sensors, modeling, diagnostics and characterization for the next generation batteries


Crescentini Marco Crescentini

Marco Crescentini

University of Bologna, Italy

De Angelis Alessio De Angelis

Alessio De Angelis

University of Perugia, Italy


Batteries are a key technology to foster the challenging and ambitious European Green Deal for the sustainable economy of the future. Climate neutrality, resource efficiency, circular and clean economy are the main targets to achieve the overall objectives: no net emissions of greenhouse gases within 2050 and decoupling of social and economic growth from resource exploitation.

In this framework, the contribution of the automotive sector to the shift towards a sustainable and smart mobility that is envisaged by the Green Deal plays a paramount role. A step increase of the demand and diffusion of efficient, affordable, and safe battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which are essential towards a low-emission transport system, can be part of the response to this challenge, but it can be achieved only if the novel “Smart” Battery Cell paradigm is adopted.

More precisely, the single battery cell must go beyond its traditional functionalities and evolve into a Cyber-Physical System (CPS), autonomously capable of collecting real-time, in-operando, multi-parameter information (e.g., besides typical electrical parameters, also the time-evolution of the electrochemical impedance spectrum, of the internal and external distributed strain and temperature, of quantities related to physical/chemical degradation phenomena, etc.). Such cell-level information needs to be transduced into battery module/cell state parameters by means of suitable algorithms and predictive models implemented either locally, and/or at the Battery Management System (BMS) level, or even in the cloud. State parameters are thus exploited by the BMS control for improving the performance, safety, and lifetime of the battery. Scientific research and industrial innovation in sensor design and integration, modeling, diagnostics, communication, as well as in related characterization techniques are strongly needed for advancing the battery technology towards the new disruptive paradigm.


Topics of interest for this Special Session include, but are not limited to:

  • Design, implementation, and characterization of sensing strategies and sensors for automotive battery modules/cells
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and other electrical sensors for batteries
  • Thermo-mechanical and chemical sensors for batteries
  • Design of efficient excitation signals for accurate, fast, and low-noise sensing on batteries
  • Ageing and degradation models
  • Physics- and data-based models
  • Battery module/cell state estimators from multi-parameter sensing
  • In-operando monitoring technologies for battery cell self-healing and second-life usage
  • Fault analysis
  • Predictive maintenance